World of GraalVM: Understanding What it is and How it’s Redefining Performance

GraalVM is transforming the software development landscape with its unique features and capabilities, offering substantial performance improvements for JVM-based languages and other modern programming languages. With 100,000+ monthly downloads and projects like Twitter, Oracle Database, and NetBeans IDE as early adopters, GraalVM is rapidly gaining traction. This glossary page explains what GraalVM is, how it works, its benefits, and use cases. You will also find best practices for using GraalVM and some of the most recommended books on the subject.

“GraalVM is like a symphony of programming languages, where diverse melodies come together in harmony, producing efficient and beautiful code execution.” – James Gosling, Creator of Java

What is GraalVM? Definition of Oracle GraalVM

GraalVM is a high-performance, polyglot virtual machine that can execute applications written in various languages, including JVM-based languages like Java, Scala, and Kotlin as well as other modern languages like JavaScript, Ruby, Python, and WebAssembly. It offers a just-in-time (JIT) compiler for dynamic execution and an ahead-of-time (AOT) compiler for static compilation. GraalVM was developed by Oracle Labs and is available in both an open-source Community Edition and a commercial Enterprise Edition.

ℹ️ Synonyms: Universal virtual machine, polyglot virtual machine, Java virtual machine, LLVM-based virtual machine, dynamic Java runtime, dynamic language runtime, runtime compiler.

How it Works

GraalVM’s architecture has several components that enable its performance advantages and polyglot capabilities. One key component is the Graal compiler, a highly-efficient JIT compiler that optimizes the execution of JVM-based languages. The Truffle language implementation framework is another essential component, which allows GraalVM to simplify the creation and interoperability of new programming languages. The SubstrateVM component offers AOT compilation, enabling GraalVM to create native executables for faster startup and lower runtime overhead.

ā­  What is etcd? A Comprehensive Definition and Introduction

Benefits of using GraalVM

  • Improved performance: GraalVM offers better application performance due to its advanced JIT compiler, which employs aggressive inlining, partial escape analysis, and other optimizations.
  • Polyglot capabilities: GraalVM enables seamless and efficient language interoperability, allowing developers to write polyglot applications with ease.
  • Native image generation: The AOT compilation provided by GraalVM allows creating native executables for faster startup times and reduced resource utilization.
  • Less overhead: GraalVM reduces the overhead of the JVM, resulting in lower memory usage and improved garbage collection.
  • Developer productivity: With support for multiple languages and debugging capabilities, GraalVM increases developer productivity and enables faster development cycles.

GraalVM Use Cases

Enterprise Applications

GraalVM offers performance improvements and Polyglot capabilities that benefit Enterprise Applications, especially those using Java and other JVM-based languages. It enables faster response times and reduced resource consumption, which can lead to cost savings.

Microservices and Serverless Functions

GraalVM’s native image generation feature makes it ideal for microservices and serverless functions, as it reduces startup times and resource utilization, ensuring faster and more efficient execution in cloud environments.

Big Data and Machine Learning

The performance improvements and polyglot capabilities offered by GraalVM benefit big data and machine learning applications that use multiple languages and frameworks, as it simplifies the integration and execution of these complex systems.

Best Practices

When using GraalVM, it is essential to keep some best practices in mind to reap its benefits fully. Ensure your applications are compatible with the GraalVM-supported language versions and use the Truffle framework to simplify the creation of new languages. For optimal execution, make use of both the just-in-time (JIT) and ahead-of-time (AOT) features, depending on the requirements of your applications. Also, invest time in profiling and fine-tuning memory management settings to further enhance application performance while minimizing resource usage.

ā­  The New Kid on the Block: What is Podman and its Definition in the Tech World

Most Recommended Books About GraalVM

  1. Practical GraalVM: Build and Run Polyglot Applications on the GraalVM by Chris Seaton, Christian Wirth, and David Leopoldseder
  2. GraalVM: The Definitive Guide to Building High-Performance Applications with GraalVM by Oleg Šelajev
  3. High-Performance Java: Tuning and Optimization with GraalVM by Duncan MacGregor


GraalVM is revolutionizing the way developers build and deploy applications by offering improved performance, polyglot capabilities, and native image generation. By understanding how GraalVM works and embracing its best practices, developers can create faster, more efficient applications, ultimately leading to better user experiences and cost savings. With its rapidly growing adoption and rich feature set, GraalVM is poised to become an essential tool for modern software developers.

Lou photo
Back in 2013, I founded Echo with the simple business idea: "Connect great tech companies around the globe with the brightest software engineers in Eastern Europe." We've employed hundreds of talents so far and keep going.
Lou photo
li-url Lou Reverchuk

IT Entrepreneur

0 0 votes
Article Rating
Notify of

1 Comment
Newest Most Voted
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments
4 days ago

I’ve spent hours exploring Echo Global’s glossary section, and I’m genuinely impressed. The articles not only provide definitions but also offer insights and context, giving readers a deeper understanding of the terms. It’s a fantastic resource that fosters continuous learning in the tech community.

Ready to meet and discuss your needs? Let's talk